By John S. Lucas, Paul C. Southgate(eds.)
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Extra info for Aquaculture, Second edition
Culture structures, site and species selected for aquaculture will depend on the economics of the venture. The aquaculture venture will fail, despite having a species that is very suitable for culture and good technology on a good farm site, if there is insufficient demand for the product and if it cannot be sold profitably (Chapter 12). Many aquaculture ventures have failed because at least one of these inter-related components has not been properly considered before undertaking the venture. Broadly, aquaculture structures include ponds, tanks, raceways, cages, pens, racks, long-lines and floats.
In fact, the largest demand is for top or near-top carnivorous fish and shrimp, as these are regarded as the ‘quality’ products (Fig. 8B). These carnivores must be fed highprotein feed, typically with fish meal as a major source of protein. Thus, one kind of less valuable seafood is used to produce a more valuable seafood, with the consequent loss of energy. 2 Intensive aquaculture systems In intensive aquaculture systems all the nutrition for the culture stock comes from introduced feeds, with no utilisation of natural diets.
3), water flow is generally high to very high. It is generally recommended that water exchange is in the range 5–10% per day for semi-intensive ponds (Boyd, 1991) and up to 30–40% per day for intensive ponds (Yoo and Boyd, 1994). An exchange rate of 1% per day is equal to 100 m3/ha per metre of average pond depth (Yoo and Boyd, 1994). That is, an exchange rate of 5% per day in a 1-ha pond of average depth 2 m requires a total of 1000 m3 of water per day. 6 General characteristics, advantage and potential problems of recirculating aquaculture systems in indoor conditions.
Aquaculture, Second edition by John S. Lucas, Paul C. Southgate(eds.)