By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
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Such energy is very clean and always available, but the initial investment needed is high. Africa has plenty of solar energy. Overall annual solar power is between 5 and 7 kWh per square metre (6-7 in the Sahel and about 5 in Central Africa), according to NASA weather maps. These figures are matched elsewhere only in the Arabian Peninsula, northern Australia and northern Chile. 3 per cent of installed world solar energy in 1999 (mainly in Morocco, Egypt, South Africa and Senegal). It is mostly used in traditional drying of crops and its growth mainly benefits wealthier classes because of the high cost of installation.
Modern energy sources (oil products and © AfDB/OECD 2004 Overview electricity) are mostly used by industry and transport. Household energy is largely biomass (Figure 11). energy. In towns and cities, biomass comprises mainly domestic waste and competes with modern forms of energy. Suburban areas are often far from biomass sources, while modern forms of energy are also often poorly supplied. The IEA estimates that 89 per cent of the population of sub-Saharan Africa use biomass as energy for all their needs (mainly lighting, cooking and heating).
However, African countries seem to be making good progress towards closing the gender gap in primary education, with 13 countries having already achieved the target and © AfDB/OECD 2004 Overview 16 countries on track. The results for progress in promoting gender equality and empowering women in secondary education are not as good: only 7 countries have already achieved the target; 12 are on track. The steady reduction of gender disparities in primary education means that, though the region may not fulfil the MDG target by 2005, it will probably do so by 2015.
African Economic Outlook, 2003 2004 by Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development