New PDF release: Advanced pH Measurement and Control

By Gregory K. McMillan

ISBN-10: 1934394432

ISBN-13: 9781934394434

This best-selling booklet offers a transparent, concise, and complete view of the way to choose, set up, and retain electrodes, regulate valves, and keep watch over innovations for pH purposes serious for product and water caliber within the strategy undefined. The publication covers each point of procedure layout together with the blending and reagent piping specifications which are vital for a profitable application.
The crucial recommendations are summarized as key insights and the easiest practices are offered as principles of thumb during the e-book. The rising potential of dynamic on-line pH estimators is explored to make latest pH measurements speedier and extra trustworthy. the newest advancements in complex batch keep an eye on, adaptive regulate, linear reagent call for keep an eye on, and version predictive keep watch over are awarded to minimize reagent intake and variability.
Этот бестселлер обеспечивает четкое, краткое, и полное представление о том, как выбрать, установить и поддерживать электроды, регулирующие клапаны и стратегию борьбы с измерением рН, решающее значение для качества продукта и воды в обрабатывающей промышленности. Книга охватывает все аспекты проектирования систем, в том числе и требования смешивания реагентов трубопроводов, которые важны для успешного применения. Важнейшие концепции можно резюмировать ключевые идеями и лучшими практиками, представленных в виде эмпирических правил на протяжении всей книги. Возникающие возможности динамического измерения рН изучены, чтобы сделать существующие измерения рН более быстрыми и надежными. Последние события в расширенный контроля, адаптивного управления, линейное управление подачи реагента и модели интеллектуального управления представлены для уменьшения расхода реагентов и изменчивости.

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Extra info for Advanced pH Measurement and Control

Example text

The controlled variable is now 0% to 100% reagent demand . This strategy works particularly well if the set point is on the steep pa rt of the curve. It avoids th e pH getting hung up on the flat part of the curve. It may do more harm than good if the set point is on the bend in a curve, and you must avoid at all costs getting on the steep part because it will slow down th e response on the steep part. It is better in th is case for the controller to see the accelera tion and use rate action to kick the pH back to the flat pa rt.

Activit y indicates an ion's ability to d o the normal type o f things that ions like to d o, such as combining with other ions (association) and b reaking free from compounds (d issociation). The ratio of the escaping tendency of the componen t in so lu tion to that at a standard state is the offi cial state sanctioned d efinition of ion activity. Equation 2-2c shows that the ion concentration multiplied by an ac tivity coefficient is equal to the ion activity. Activ ities are dimensionless. The activ ity coefficien t d ecreases from unity as the ion concentratio n increases from zero.

Table 2-2a lists the activity coefficients for some common ions in water for d ifferent ionic strengths. 1. The ionic strength can then be substitu ted into Eq uation 2-2e to estima te its effect on the activity coefficien t of the hyd rogen (hydronium) ion. The hydrogen ion is less affected than other ions because it is more mobile. Mos t effl uen t streams in waste treatment are d ilute enough that the activity coefficient for hyd rogen can be considered equal to one. However this is not true for many reagen t and some influent streams or for reactions where salts are formed.

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Advanced pH Measurement and Control by Gregory K. McMillan


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