By Michael Allaby
This major dictionary - now in its fourth version - bargains wide-ranging and authoritative assurance of the earth sciences and similar issues in over 7,500 transparent and available entries. insurance contains geology, planetary technology, oceanography, palaeontology, mineralogy, and volcanology, in addition to climatology, geochemistry, and petrology.
This new version has been absolutely up to date with one hundred fifty new entries additional, with multiplied insurance of geology and planetary geology phrases. Over a hundred thirty line drawings accompany the definitions.
The Dictionary additionally presents suggested internet hyperlinks that are indexed and frequently up to date on a committed significant other site. Appendices comprise a revised geological time scale, an up to date bibliography, stratigraphic devices, lunar and Martian time scales, wind-strength scales, and SI devices. This dictionary is key for college students of geography, geology, and earth sciences, and for these in in similar disciplines.
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Angle of shearing resistance (internal angle of friction, angle of frictional resistance; f) Approximate angle of repose for clean *sand; it reduces with moisture content and is zero for a sheared, saturated *clay. For rocks, a rough determination of the angle may be made by placing two small blocks of material together and inclining them until the top one slides. anglesite *Secondary lead mineral, PbSO4; sp. gr. 4; *hardness 3; *orthorhombic; normally colourless to white, but sometimes yellow, grey, or coloured by a bluish tinge; white *streak; *adamantine *lustre; *crystals *tabular, *prismatic, or pyramidal, or occurring as *massive, granular, or compact aggregations; normally occurs in the oxidized zone of lead deposits, and often surrounds a core of *galena.
Many of the fossils were found in coal measures and the name means ‘coal lizards’. The anthracosaurs were ﬁrst deﬁned as large, aquatic amphibians, and later as reptile-like amphibians. They are now deﬁned as reptile-like tetrapods (*Tetrapoda), and probably not true amphibians, comprising a *paraphyletic order within the superorder *Reptilomorpha. Anthropogene See quaternary. anthropogenic Applied to substances, processes, etc. of human origin, or that result from human activity. e. rivers made to ﬂow along ﬁxed, sometimes concretelined, channels), the melting of *permafrost, and ground subsidence due to the extraction of water or minerals.
It is the angle (f), measured between the normal force (N) and resultant force (R), that is attained when failure just occurs in response to a shearing stress (S). Its tangent (S/N) is the coefﬁcient of sliding friction. Its value is determined experimentally. angle of reflection The angle between a reﬂected ray or wave and the normal to a reﬂecting surface. angle of refraction The angle between a refracted ray or wave and the normal to a refracting surface. The angle of refraction is related to the *angle of incidence by *Snell’s law.
A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences by Michael Allaby